ELEC 320
Prof. Rich Kozick

Classes of Systems:

  1. Linear and nonlinear systems

  2. Constant-parameter (time-invariant) and time-varying-parameter (time-varying) systems

  3. Instantaneous (memoryless or static) and dynamic (with memory) systems

  4. Causal and noncausal systems

  5. Lumped-parameter and distributed-parameter systems

  6. Continuous-time and discrete-time systems

  7. Analog and digital systems
These are the most common and important classes of systems.


  1. Consider a system that plays an audio tape at half-speed. Let x(t) represent the audio signal at full-speed, and y(t) be the output signal from the half-speed system. Assume x(t) begins at time t=0 and is defined for t>0.

  2. For each of the following system classification properties, try to think of at least one example of a system with that property.

    Linear, nonlinear, time-invariant, time-varying, memoryless, with memory, causal, non-causal.