SQUASH

RULES OF THE WORLD SINGLES GAME
(INCLUDING APPENDICES 1-11)

APPROVED BY THE WORLD SQUASH FEDERATION
EFFECTIVE 1 MAY 1997 TO 30 APRIL 2001

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General

The Rules

Appendices

Guidelines

Introduction

Changes

Contents

the Rules

Appendices

  1. The Game
  2. The Score
  3. Points
  4. The Service
  5. The Play
  6. Good Return
  7. Continuity Of Play
  8. Strokes
  9. Hitting An Opponent With The Ball
  10. Further Attempts To Hit The Ball
  11. Appeals
  12. Interference
  13. Lets
  14. The Ball
  15. Warm Up
  16. Injury
  17. Conduct On Court
  18. Control Of A Match
  19. Duties Of A Marker
  20. Duties Of a Referee

  1. 1. Guidelines >>>
  2. Definitions (singles)
    Definitions (Doubles)
    Marker's Calls (Singles)
    Marker's Calls (Doubles)
    Referee's Calls
  3. Experimental Officiating Systems
  4. Point-a-rally Scoring
  5. Experimental Rules
  6. Dimensions of a singles court
    Dimensions of a doubles court
  7. Specification of the Squash Ball
  8. Dimensions of a Squash Racket
  9. Players' Clothing
  10. Protective Eyewear
  11. Guidelines for Federations etc

  1. Change Of Equipment
  2. Illness Or Disability On Court
  3. Time Wasting
  4. Fallen Object
  5. Player Struck By The Ball
  6. Shaping To Play The Ball
  7. Making Every Effort
  8. Timing Of Appeals
  9. Method Of Appeal
  10. Early Appeal
  11. Created Interference
  12. Unnecessary Physical Contact
  13. Appeals For Fear Of Injury
  14. Broken Ball
  15. Self­inflicted Injury
  16. Coaching and Crowd Control
  17. Progression Of Penalties
  18. Single Official
  19. Marker's Calls
  20. Marker's Guidelines
  21. Addressing The Players
  22. Explanation By Referees


INTRODUCTION

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The significant changes are as follows:

  1. Whereas previous Rules of Squash used masculine pronouns for convenience, the 1997 Rules are non-gender specific, recognising the fact that Squash is as much a game for females as for males. Considerable minor rewording has been necessary to achieve this important change.
  2. Wording of the service rule has been simplified to avoid duplication. To initiate service, any player may now drop the ball from either a hand or the racket, and more than one attempt is permitted to strike the ball. The cut line has been renamed the service line.
  3. Rule 7 has become Continuity Of Play (the former Rule 7. Let, is now a definition). The obligations of a player suffering an illness or disability are detailed in this Rule and in Guideline G2. Contained in this Rule also are the considerations of a player dropping an object to the floor of the court. If this occurs, basically play has to stop unless the object is a racket, and the player will lose the stroke unless a collision or interference situation is the cause. Guideline G4 amplifies the requirements.
  4. The requirements for non-striker struck by the ball have been more clearly defined, and the former Marker call of "Down" is no longer required. If the non-striker is hit by the ball coming from the front wall, and interference is not the reason, then the non-striker will lose the stroke in all cases except further attempt. Rule 8.3 outlines the requirements, and a Guideline G5, covers all cases of player struck by the ball, both striker and non-striker.
  5. A separate rule for injury now exists, Rule 16, and although the three categories of injury remain, the third is renamed "Opponent-inflicted". Recovery time for a self-inflicted injury is limited to three minutes unless blood flow accompanies the injury (a Guideline, G15, amplifies the requirements). The stipulated recovery time for a contributed injury is one hour but that may be extended in some circumstances. Requirements relevant to blood flow are detailed in this rule, including re-bleeding, and also included is the procedure for a claimed injury not accepted as such by the Referee.
  6. A minor wording change in the rule relating to on court offences now makes it mandatory to penalise a player when an offence has occurred.
  7. The correct position for marking and refereeing a Squash match forms part of the rules instead of appearing as an appendix.

APPENDICES

There are 11 Appendices to the Rules, and significant changes are:

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CONTENTS

Section

Sub-section

Ref.

1

The Game

2

The Score

3

Points

4

The Service

Service boxes

4.2

Service not good

4.4

Fault

4.4.1, 4.4.6, 4.4.7, 4.4.8

Foot fault

4.4.2

Not up

4.4.3, 4.4.4

Out

4.4.5

Down

4.4.7

5

The Play

6

Good Return

7

Continuity Of Play

Play suspended

7.1

Time between games and end of warm up to start of play

7.2

Change of equipment

7.3, G1

Referee calls

7.4

Illness or disability

7.5, G2

Delaying play

7.7, G3

Fallen object

7.8, G4

8

Strokes

Return not good

8.2, G5

Ball touches non-striker

8.3, G5

9

Hitting An Opponent With The Ball

Directly to front wall

9.1

Turning

9.2, G6

To or from other wall

9.3

10

Further Attempts To Hit The Ball

Let allowed

10.1

Striker loses stroke

10.2

11

Appeals

On service

11.1

On play other than service

11.2

More than one appeal

Note B

12

Interference

Direct access

12.2.1, Note A, G9

Fair view

12.2.2, Note B

Freedom to hit the ball

12.2.3, Note C, G8

Directly to front wall,

12.2.4

Player appeals

12.4, G9, G10

No let

12.6, G11

Let allowed

12.7

Stroke award

12.8

Unnecessary physical contact

12.10.1, G12

13

Lets

Ball touches article

13.1.1

Refrains owing to fear of injury

13.1.2, G13

Distraction

13.1.3

Change in court conditions

13.1.4

Receiver not ready

13.2.1

Ball breaks

13.2.2

14

The Ball

Substitution

4.1

Ball breaks

14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, G14

During 90-second interval

14.6

15

Warm Up

Time

15.1

After delay

15.2

During 90-second interval

15.3

16

Injury

Self-inflicted

16.1.1, 16.2, 16.8, G15

Contributed

16.1.2, 16.3, 16.7

Opponent-inflicted

16.1.3, 16.4

Blood flow

16.5, 16.7, 16.8, G15

Referee rules no injury

16.9, G15

17

Conduct On Court

Offences

Penalty provisions

G17

Coaching

G16

18

Control Of A Match

One Official only

G18

Correct position

19

Duties Of A Marker

Calls

19.1, 19.2, G19, G20

Uncertain

19.3, Note

20

Duties Of a Referee

Duties

20.1, G21

Control

20.2, G22

Incorrect score

20.3

Marker's error

20.4

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APPENDICES

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THE RULES

SQUASH - RULES OF THE WORLD SINGLES GAME

 


1. THE GAME

The game of Squash is played between two players, each using a racket, with a ball, and in a court, all three of which meet WSF specifications.


2. THE SCORE

A match shall consist of the best of three or five games at the option of the organisers of the competition. Each game is to nine points, in that the player who scores nine points wins the game, except that, on the score being called eight-all for the first time, the receiver shall choose before the next service is delivered to continue that game either to nine points (known as "Set one") or to ten points (known as "Set two") in which latter case the player who scores two more points wins the game. The receiver shall in either case clearly indicate this choice to the Marker, Referee and the opponent.

The Marker shall call "Set one" or "Set two" as applicable before play continues.

The Marker shall call "Game ball" to indicate that the server requires one point to win the game in progress or "Match ball" to indicate that the server requires one point to win the match.


3. POINTS

Points can be scored only by the server. The server, upon winning a stroke, scores a point; the receiver, upon winning a stroke, becomes the server.


4. THE SERVICE


5. THE PLAY

After a good service has been delivered the players return the ball alternately until one fails to make a good return, the ball otherwise ceases to be in play in accordance with the rules, on an appeal by a player, or on a call by the Marker or Referee.


6. GOOD RETURN

6.1 A return is good if the ball, before it has bounced more than once upon the floor, is returned correctly by the striker onto the front wall above the board, either directly or via sidewall(s) and/or back wall, without first touching the floor or any part of the striker's body or clothing, or the opponent's racket, body or clothing, provided the ball is not hit out.

6.2 It shall not be considered a good return if the ball touches the board before or after it hits the front wall and before it bounces on the floor, or if the racket is not in the player's hand at the time the ball is struck.


7. CONTINUITY OF PLAY

After the first service is delivered play shall be continuous so far as is practical provided that:


8. STROKES

A player wins a stroke:


   9. HITTING AN OPPONENT WITH THE BALL

If the ball, before reaching the front wall, hits the striker's opponent (including anything worn or carried), the ball shall cease to be in play and:


10. FURTHER ATTEMPTS TO HIT THE BALL

If the striker strikes at and misses the ball, further attempts to strike it may be made. If, after being missed, the ball touches the opponent (including anything worn or carried) then, in the opinion of the Referee:

If any such further attempt is successful but results in a good return being prevented from reaching the front wall by hitting the striker's opponent (including anything worn or carried), a let shall be allowed in all circumstances. If any such further attempt would not have resulted in a good return, the striker shall lose the stroke.


11. APPEALS

The loser of a rally may appeal against any decision of the Marker affecting that rally.
An appeal to the Referee under Rule 11 should be prefaced with the words "Appeal please". Play shall then cease until the Referee has given the decision.

If an appeal under Rule 11 is disallowed the Marker's decision shall stand. If the Referee is uncertain a let shall be allowed except where provided for in the Note To Referees after Rule 11.2.1 and Notes To Referees C and D after Rule 11.2.2.

Appeals upheld or Referee intervention under Rule 20.4 are dealt with in each specific situation below.

11.1 Appeals on Service.

11.2 Appeals on Play other than Service.


12. INTERFERENCE

12.1 The player whose turn it is to play the ball is entitled to freedom from interference by the opponent.
12.2 To avoid interference the opponent must make every effort to provide the player with:

12.3 Interference occurs if the opponent fails to fulfil any of the requirements of Rule 12.2, irrespective of whether the opponent makes every effort to fulfil those requirements.

12.4 A player encountering possible interference has the choice of continuing with play or of stopping and appealing to the Referee.

12.5 The Referee shall decide on the appeal and shall announce the decision with the words "No let", "Yes let" or "Stroke to...(name of appropriate player)". In assessing the situation the only relevant opinion is that of the Referee and the decision of the Referee shall be final.

12.6 The Referee shall not allow a let and the player shall lose the rally if:

12.7 The Referee shall allow a let if there has been interference which the opponent has made every effort to avoid and the player would have made a good return.

12.8 The Referee shall award a stroke to the player if:

12.9 The Referee is also empowered to allow a let under Rule 12.7 or to award a stroke under Rule 12.8 without an appeal having been made, if necessary stopping play to do so.

12.10 The provisions of Rule 17. Conduct On Court, may be applied in interference situations. The Referee shall, stopping play if it has not already stopped, apply an appropriate penalty if:


13. LETS

In addition to lets allowed under other rules, lets may or shall be allowed in certain other cases. Any request for a let should be prefaced by the words "Let please".

13.1 A let may be allowed:

13.2 A let shall be allowed:

13.3 If the striker appeals for a let under Rules 13.1 (1 to 4), in order for a let to be allowed the striker must have been able to make a good return. For a non-striker appeal under Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.3 and 13.1.4 this is not a requirement.

13.4 No let shall be allowed under Rules 13.1.2 and 13.2.1 if the striker attempts to play the ball but may be allowed under Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.3, 13.1.4, 13.2.2, 13.2.3 and 13.2.4.

13.5 The appeals requirements of Rule 13 are:


14. THE BALL

14.1 At any time, when the ball is not in actual play, another ball may be substituted by mutual consent of the players, or on appeal by either player at the discretion of the Referee.

14.2 If a ball breaks during play, it shall be replaced promptly by another ball.

14.3 If a ball has broken during play but this has not been established, a let for the rally in which the ball broke shall be allowed if the server appeals prior to the next service or if the receiver appeals prior to attempting to return that service.

14.4 The provisions of Rule 14.3 do not apply to the final rally of a game. An appeal in this case must be immediately after the rally.

14.5 If a player stops during a rally to appeal that the ball is broken only to find subsequently that the ball is not broken, then that player shall lose the stroke.

14.6 Between games the ball shall remain within the court unless removal is permitted by the Referee.


15. WARM UP

15.1 Immediately preceding the start of play the two players together shall be allowed on the court of play a period of five minutes for the purpose of warming up the ball to be used for the match.

After two and a half minutes of the warm up, the Referee shall call "Half time" and ensure that the players change sides unless they mutually agree otherwise. The Referee shall also advise when the warm up period is complete with the call of "Time".

15.2 Where a ball has been substituted under Rule 14 or when the match is being resumed after considerable delay, the Referee shall allow the ball to be warmed up to playing condition.

Play shall then resume on the direction of the Referee, or upon mutual consent of the players, whichever is the earlier.

15.3 The ball may be warmed up by either player between the end of the five-minute warm up and start of play, between games and when the opponent is changing equipment.


16. INJURY

 16.1 In the event of an injury to a player the Referee shall decide whether the injury category is:

16.2 (G15) For a self-inflicted injury (Rule 16.1.1) the Referee shall allow the injured player three minutes to recover from the injury. This time interval may be extended at the discretion of the Referee only if the injury involves visible blood flow. The Referee shall call "Time" at the end of the three-minute period and at the end of any additional period permitted. If the injured player has not returned to court when "Time" is called the Referee shall award the match to the opponent. If additional recovery time is needed by the player beyond the total time permitted by the Referee, the Referee shall require the injured player to resume play; or concede one game, accept the time interval available and then either resume play or concede the match.

16.3 For a contributed injury (Rule 16.1.2) the Referee shall allow one hour for the injured player to recover, or such additional time as is provided for in the time schedule of the competition.
The injured player must, by the end of this period of time, resume play or concede the match. If play is resumed the score at the conclusion of the rally in which the injury occurred shall stand, except that if play is resumed on another day the match may start again if both players agree.

16.4 For an opponent-inflicted injury (Rule 16.1.3) the Referee shall apply an appropriate Rule 17 penalty, except that if the injured player requires time to recover the Referee shall award the match to the injured player.

16.5 Irrespective of the category of injury, or of illness or disability, a player shall not resume play while a wound which is bleeding remains uncovered, or blood flow is visible from a covered wound or on any part of the player's body, or with blood-stained clothing.

16.6 An injured player, having been granted a period of recovery time, may resume play prior to the expiry of that period of time provided that the opponent is also ready to resume play.

16.7 If a player resumes play, having treated bleeding that resulted from a contributed injury, and that wound again begins to bleed, the Referee shall then consider this under the category of a self-inflicted injury, and the provisions of Rule 16.2 shall apply.

16.8 If a player resumes play, having treated bleeding that resulted from a self-inflicted injury, and that wound again begins to bleed, the Referee shall require the player to concede the match; or concede one game, accept the time interval available, and then either resume play or concede the match.

16.9 If a player claims injury and the Referee is not satisfied that an injury has occurred, the Referee shall require the player to resume play; or concede one game, accept the time interval available and then either resume play or concede the match.


17. CONDUCT ON COURT

If the Referee considers that the behaviour of a player on court could be intimidating or offensive to an opponent, official or spectator, or could in any way bring the game into disrepute, the player shall be penalised.

(G16) Offences which should be dealt with under this rule include audible and visible obscenities, verbal and physical abuse, dissent to Marker or Referee, abuse of racket, ball or court, and coaching, other than during the interval between games. Other offences include unnecessary physical contact and excessive racket swing (Rule 12.10), unfair warm up (Rule 15.2 Note To Referees), late back on court (Rule 7.4 Notes To Referees A and B), dangerous play or action (Rule 16.1.3) and time wasting (Rule 7.6).

(G17) For these and any other offences which, in the opinion of the Referee, justify the application of this rule, one of the following penalty provisions shall be applied.


18. CONTROL OF A MATCH

A match is normally controlled by a Referee, assisted by a Marker. One person may be appointed to carry out the functions of both Referee and Marker. After making a decision the Referee shall announce it to the players and the Marker shall repeat it with the subsequent score.

The correct position for refereeing and marking a Squash match is one located at the centre of the back wall, as close to that wall as is physically possible, above the out line on the back wall, and preferably with seating.


19. DUTIES OF A MARKER

19.1 The Marker shall call the play, followed by the score, with the server's score called first. The Marker shall call "Fault", "Foot fault", "Not up", "Down", "Out", "Hand-out" and "Stop" as appropriate, and shall repeat the Referee's decisions.

19.2 (G19) If the Marker makes a call the rally shall cease.

 Note To Markers
The Marker, if unsighted or uncertain, shall make no call.

19.3 When play ceases the Marker, if unsighted or uncertain, shall advise the players and shall call on the Referee to make the relevant decision; if the Referee is uncertain a let shall be allowed.


20. DUTIES OF A REFEREE

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX 1

OFFICIAL GUIDELINES ON RULES INTERPRETATIONS
FOR PLAYERS AND REFEREES

Guideline numbers are referenced in the rules.

INTRODUCTION


G1. CHANGE OF EQUIPMENT


G2. ILLNESS OR DISABILITY ON COURT


G3. TIME WASTING


G4. FALLEN OBJECT


G5. PLAYER STRUCK BY THE BALL


G6. SHAPING TO PLAY THE BALL


G7. MAKING EVERY EFFORT


G8. TIMING OF APPEALS


G9. METHOD OF APPEAL


G10. EARLY APPEAL


G11. CREATED INTERFERENCE


G12. UNNECESSARY PHYSICAL CONTACT


G13. APPEALS FOR FEAR OF INJURY


G14. BROKEN BALL


G15. SELF­INFLICTED INJURY

  1. When a player suffers a self­inflicted injury, i.e. an injury which clearly does not involve the opponent or which is described in Rule 16 Note C, the Referee should allow the recovery time permitted in Rule 16.2 when:

  2. There is reasonably clear evidence to the Referee that an injury has occurred. This could be as the result of a blow, especially to the face or head, as a result of the player coming into heavy contact with walls or floor, or a sudden stoppage action by the player that might be caused by a muscle tear or sprained joint.
  3. or

  4. 2. Any occurrence, including injury, illness or disability, results in visible blood flow.

    In the case of symptoms of tiredness, alleged injuries not reasonably evident to the Referee or pre­existing ailments, recovery time should not be permitted (except that the player concerned must be allowed the option of conceding one game to gain a ninety­second interval between games). Included in this category are occurrences such as cramps, whether abdominal pains or muscle cramps, actual or impending nausea, and breathlessness including asthma conditions.

    Where recovery time for blood flow is permitted the requirements of Rule 16.5 apply. A player unable to stop blood flow within the total time permitted by the Referee must either concede one game to gain a further ninety seconds and then continue play without blood flow, or concede the match.

    If a player's clothing has become blood­stained as a result of the injury then that clothing must also be changed before the player is permitted to resume play.

    It is the responsibility of the injured player to be back at the court when "Time" is called by the Referee, either to resume play, or to request an extension of recovery time, if required, in the case of an injury which is still bleeding. If the player is not present when "Time" is called then the Referee must award the match to the opponent.

    Any decision to resume play must be made by the player. The Referee's role is to decide whether an injury exists, to apply and monitor time intervals, and to apply the laid­down requirements when total allocated time has elapsed.


G16. COACHING AND CROWD CONTROL


G17. PROGRESSION OF PENALTIES


G18. SINGLE OFFICIAL


G19. MARKER'S CALLS

The Marker must call to stop a rally if of the opinion that a player has failed to deliver a good service or make a good return.

However, if because of a service or return which was obviously not good, both players cease play without the Marker making a call, then the appropriate call of "Not up", "Down" or "Out" may be omitted.


G20. MARKER'S GUIDELINES


G21. ADDRESSING THE PLAYERS


G22. EXPLANATION BY REFEREES


APPENDIX 2.1

DEFINITIONS (SINGLES)


APPENDIX 2.1.1

DEFINITIONS (DOUBLES)


APPENDIX 2.2

MARKER'S CALLS (SINGLES)

The recognised Marker's calls are defined below.


APPENDIX 2.2.1

MARKER'S CALLS (DOUBLES)

All Marker's calls for Doubles are the same as for Singles, except for:


APPENDIX 2.3

REFEREE'S CALLS


APPENDIX 3

EXPERIMENTAL OFFICIATING SYSTEMS


APPENDIX 4

POINT­A­RALLY SCORING

The standard scoring system described in Rule 2. The Score and Rule 3. Points, of the Rules of the World Singles Game of Squash remains the approved scoring system for singles Squash. The following variations apply if point­a­rally scoring (PARS) is used:


APPENDIX 5

EXPERIMENTAL RULES

The World Squash Federation may from time to time request or authorise its members to carry out certain rules experiments.

Tournament organisers using experimental rules shall specify at the time of entry the manner in which any rules, definitions or appendices differ from those of the WSF.


APPENDIX 6

DESCRIPTION AND DIMENSIONS OF A SINGLES COURT

DESCRIPTION
A Squash Court is a rectangular box with four vertical walls of varying height; being the Front Wall, Side Walls and Back Wall. It has a level floor and a clear height above the court area.

DIMENSIONS

 
CONSTRUCTION
A Squash Court may be constructed from a number of materials providing they have suitable ball rebound characteristics and are safe for play; however, the WSF publishes a Squash Court Specification which contains recommended standards. The standards must be met for competitive play as required by the appropriate National Governing Body of Squash.


APPENDIX 6.1

DESCRIPTION AND DIMENSIONS OF A DOUBLES COURT

The description, dimensions and notes and construction shall be the same as for the World Singles Court except for:


APPENDIX 7

SPECIFICATIONS OF A STANDARD YELLOW DOT SQUASH BALL

The following specification is the standard for a yellow dot ball to be used under the Rules of Squash.

 

 


APPENDIX 8

DIMENSIONS OF A SQUASH RACKET

DIMENSIONS

WEIGHT

CONSTRUCTION


APPENDIX 9

PLAYERS' CLOTHING


APPENDIX 10

PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR


APPENDIX 11

GUIDELINES FOR NATIONAL FEDERATIONS, THEIR AFFILIATED ASSOCIATIONS AND TOURNAMENT ORGANISERS


Last Update: 03/05/97
By: Steve Cubbins