- Use independent replications, i.e. the simulation is repeated
a total of
*R*times, each run using a different random number stream and independently chosen initial conditions. - Let be the
*i*th observations within replication*r*, for and*r = 1, 2, ..., R*. - For a fixed
*r*, is an autocorrelated sequence. For different replications and are statistically independent. - Define a sample mean

- There are
*R*samples, so*R*sample means, the overall point estimate is

Meng Xiannong 2002-10-18