Next: About this document
Computers And Information Super-Highway
Department of Computer Science
The University of Texas - Pan American
Edinburg, TX 78539-2999
Outline of the Presentation
- Origin and a brief history of the Internet
- Components of the Internet
- Information Super-Highway
- Current status of the Internet
- Further probes
Origin And A Brief History of the Internet
- In 1968, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) initiated the effort to develop a technology now known as
- In 1969 a four-node experimental computer network connecting
UCLA, UCSB, SRI and the University of Utah, using Interface Message
Processors (computers dedicated to message passing). This network was
- In three years (1969-1972), the ARPANET grew to about 40 nodes.
- DARPA developed packet radio network and packet satellite
network in early 1970s; XEROX developed the Ethernet local area
network based on coaxial cable in mid-1970s.
- Need for inter-network arises.
- TCP/IP, the most important protocols in the Internet, was
designed and developed in mid to late 1970.
- January 1983, the Defense Communications Agency declared
TCP/IP the standard for ARPANET.
- By 1990, the ARPANET had been overtaken by newer networks
such as NSFNET. A large number of regional networks were developed.
- Internet was needed for all networks to communicate to
each other. The Internet started to take shape around mid-1980s.
- The number of hosts on the Internet was estimated at 16
millions by January 1997
Components of the Internet
- Hosts (computers)
- Network interface card
- Communication medium (twisted pairs, co-axial cable, fiber
optics, microwave etc.)
- Common carriers
- Software: a layered structure
- service providers (universities, companies,
- network providers (telephone companies, network
- Internet forms a set of inter-connected networks which
connects to millions of hosts.
- Computers on the Internet are organized into hierarchies
- At the top level domains: *.edu, *.com, *.org, *.gov,
*.net, *.us, *.fr, *.cn, *.mx ...
- Within each of these top level domain:
*.panam.edu, *.utsa.edu, *.ibm.com, *.sony.com, *.cnd.org,
*.whitehouse.gov. Typically each individual organization is at this
- The next level can be department, or individual
computers. Every computer on the Internet has to have a unique address.
- IP addresses (license plates for vehicles): IP addresses
are represented in four integers, each is between 0 and 255,
e.g. 184.108.40.206 where 129.113.*
is the IP address set for UT Pan American.
- IP addresses and the name of the computer on the Internet
are translated by Domain Name Systems (DNS).
- How many computers can we have before running out IPs?
About four billions.
- Users can travel (surf) around the Internet and access
- How fast can we go?
- Bits and bytes travel at the speed of the light
- Computers need time to process the information
(generated and received)
- Network interface card need time to transmit the
information (locally: Ethernet, backbone: ATM)
- When multiple computers send information at the same
time, collisions happen, have to be resolved.
- When messages go to the routers they have to wait if
other messages are in transition
- The rules that govern the operation of the Internet are
- The types of traffic (types of vehicles) on the Internet:
multimedia, i.e. text, audio, video.
- The types of information available on the Internet:
- Education, research
- Tourist and travel
- Commercial, shopping
- Information about people, about organization
According to Tony Rutkowski of General Magic (as of Jan 1997)
- A total of 16 million hosts on the Internet
- *.com has about 4 million hosts
- *.edu has about 2.6 million hosts
- *.net has about 1.5 million hosts
- *.mil has about 0.7 million hosts
- *.gov has about 0.4 million hosts
- *.org has about 0.3 million hosts
- Other 2-letter domains (such as *.ch, *.fr, *.uk, *.us, *.mx)
cover over 77 countries with roughly 6.5 million hosts
- High speed backbone network
- Internet II
- wireless communication (e.g. netmobile)
- home application
- Bright; information revolution (like the Industrial
- Will come to home and everywhere; the world will be at your
- Will enable us to invent new technologies
- Need to study to stay current and catch the future
Next: About this document
Sun Oct 18 09:47:15 CDT 1998