E.g. when setting up a telephone sales department (such as the 1998 World Cup Soccer Game), how many operators are enough to handle the calls? Many factors can play a role here: the number of tickets left, estimated number of people who want the ticket, capacity of the phone lines, how long would it take to service one call, etc.
E.g. to study the behavior of a web server, we can simulate the client traffic and see how it responds.
E.g. before actually building a cache system, one can simulation the various configuration of the cache, study its behavior and find out the optimum solution.
E.g. in studying the performance of a computer network, a number of parameters affect the outcome, cable length, transmission speed, packet size, arrival rate, number of stations, etc. which one is the most important on the delay? It's the ratio of arrival rate and service rate.